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Multi-scale camouflage is a type of military camouflage combining patterns at two or more scales, often (though not
necessarily) with a digital camouflage pattern created with computer assistance. The function is to provide camouflage over a
approaches are called fractal camouflage. Not all multiscale patterns are composed of rectangular pixels, even if they were
designed using a computer. Further, not all pixellated patterns work at different scales, so being pixellated or digital does not of
itself guarantee improved performance.
The first issued pattern was the Italian telo mimetico, which was on a single scale. The root of the modern multi-scale
by Canadian development of Canadian Disruptive Pattern (CADPAT), first issued in 2002, and then with US work which
created Marine pattern (MARPAT), launched between 2002 and 2004.
The scale of camouflage patterns is related to their function. Large structures need larger patterns than individual soldiers to
disrupt their shape. At the same time, large patterns are more effective from afar, while small scale patterns work better up close.
Traditional single scale patterns work well in their optimal range from the observer, but an observer at other distances will not
several magnitudes of scale. The idea behind multi-scale patterns is both to mimic the self-similarity of nature, and also to
sometimes also used of computer generated patterns like the non-pixellated Multicam and the Italian fractal Vegetato pattern.
 Neither pixellation nor digitization contribute to the camouflaging effect. The pixellated style, however, simplifies design and
eases printing on fabric, compared to traditional patterns. While digital patterns are becoming widespread, critics maintain that
the pixellated look is a question of fashion rather than function.
The design process involves trading-off different factors, including colour, contrast and overall disruptive effect. A failure to
consider all elements of pattern design tends to result in poor results. The US Army's Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP), for
example, adopted after limited testing in 2003–4, performed poorly because of low pattern contrast ("isoluminance"—beyond
very close range, the design looks like a field of solid light grey, failing to disrupt an object's outlines) and arbitrary colour
Interwar development in Europe
The idea of patterned camouflage extends back to the interwar period in Europe. The first printed camouflage pattern was the
German WWII experiments
Main article: German World War II camouflage patterns
The German Army developed the idea further in the 1970s into Flecktarn, which combines smaller shapes with dithering; this softens the edges of the large scale pattern, making the underlying objects harder to discern.
Soviet WWII experiments
Pixel-like shapes pre-date computer-aided design by many years, already being used in Soviet Union experiments with
camouflage patterns, such as "TTsMKK"[b] developed in 1944 or 1945. The pattern uses areas of olive green, sand, and black
running together in broken patches at a range of scales.
1976 research by Timothy O'Neill
In 1976, Timothy O'Neill created a pixellated pattern named "Dual-Tex". He called the digital approach "texture match". The initial
work was done by hand on a retired M113 armoured personnel carrier; O'Neill painted the pattern on with a 2-inch (5 centimetre) roller, forming squares of colour by hand. Field testing showed that the result was good compared to the U. S.
2000s fractal-like digital patterns
MARPAT patterns were somewhat self-similar (in the manner of fractals and patterns in nature such as vegetation), being
designed to work at two different scales; a genuinely fractal pattern would be statistically similar at all scales. A target
camouflaged with MARPAT takes about 2.5 times longer to detect than older NATO camouflage which worked at only one scale,
Fractal-like patterns work because the human visual system efficiently discriminates images which have different fractal
which had two colour schemes, one designed for woodland, one for desert.
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