camouflage pattern"), was designed in 1931 and was initially intended for Zeltbahn shelter halves. The clothing patterns
developed from it combined a pattern of interlocking irregular green, brown, and buff polygons with vertical "rain" streaks. Later
patterns, all said to have been designed for the Waffen-SS by Johan Georg Otto Schick, evolved into more leaf-like forms with
rounded dots or irregular shapes. Camouflage smocks were designed to be reversible, providing camouflage for two seasons,
whether summer and autumn, or summer and winter (snow). Distribution was limited to the Waffen-SS, ostensibly because of a
patent, though variants were used by other units, including the Luftwaffe (air force). Production was limited by shortage of
halves/groundsheets. Waffen-SS combat units used various patterns from 1935 onwards. The SS camouflage patterns were
designed by Johann Georg Otto Schick, a Munich art professor and then the director of the German camouflage research
battalion, and he was looking for better camouflage. Schick had researched the effect of light on trees in summer and in
autumn. These led to the idea of reversible camouflage clothing, with green summer patterns on one side, brown autumn
patterns on the other. In 1937, the patterns were field tested by the SS-VT Deutschland regiment, resulting in an estimate that
they would cut casualties by fifteen percent.[c] In 1938, a reversible spring/autumn helmet cover, smock, and sniper's face mask
the Wehrmacht from using the patterns, which became a distinctive emblem of the Waffen-SS during the war. However,
patterned uniforms were worn by some other units, including from 1941 the Luftwaffe (air force), which had its own version
1945 Leibermuster was planned to be issued to both the SS and the Wehrmacht, but it appeared too late to be distributed
Production of groundsheets, helmet covers and smocks by the Warei, Forster and Joring companies began in November 1938.
They were initially hand-printed, limiting deliveries by January 1939 to only 8,400 groundsheets and 6,800 helmet covers and a
small number of smocks. By June 1940, machine printing had taken over, and 33,000 smocks were made for the Waffen-SS.
Supplies of high quality cotton duck, however, remained critically short throughout the war, and essentially ran out in January
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